Thyroid hemiagenesis with a TI-RADS 2 nodule in the contralateral lobe

Article Authors: Senai Goitom Sereke, Anthony Oriekot & Felix Bongomin


Background: Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of the thyroid gland fails to develop. There is an increased incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis.
Case presentation: A 32-year-old Ugandan woman presented with a complaint of painless neck swelling of 3-months duration. The swelling was associated with a globus sensation. There was no history of thyroid – related problems or treatment prior to this presentation. Physical examination demonstrated a mobile right thyroid swelling without an obvious nodular contour. Neck ultrasound showed an absent left lobe of thyroid gland, a right lobe with a solitary nodule scoring two points on the Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) and an isthmus in situ. Extensive search for possible ectopic thyroid tissue was negative. She was biochemically euthyroid. The patient was counseled about thyroid hemiagenesis and was put on a regular follow up in the clinic for the TI-RADS 2 nodule.
Conclusion: Thyroid hemiagenesis is often associated with other thyroid disorders. Its diagnosis should prompt an active search for other associated morphological or functional thyroid abnormalities.

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