Self-Reported Hypertension and Associated Factors Among Adults in Butambala District, Central Uganda: A Community-Based Prevalence Study

Article Authors: Alex Male Kato, Winnie Kibone, Jerom Okot, Joseph Baruch Baluku, Felix Bongomin


Background: The prevalence of hypertension (HTN) differs among regions and income groups, showing a substantial increase in low- and middle-income countries. The development of hypertension is modulated by modifiable lifestyle factors, and uncontrolled hypertension poses a risk for the onset of cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: To determine the community-level point-prevalence and factors associated with self-reported HTN among adults in Butambala district, central Uganda.

Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged ≥18 years in Budde subcounty, central Uganda. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and behavior were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. Self-reported HTN was assessed using a single question: “Do you have high blood pressure?” Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of self-reported HTN.

Results: A total of 565 participants (53.5% female) with a median age of 38 years (IQR: 26-52) were included in the study. The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 18.9%. Factors independently associated with HTN were age 60 years or older (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.64-5.23, p<0.001), female sex (aOR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.3-6.3, p<0.001), being widowed (aOR: 10.4, 95% CI: 1.25-87.14, p=0.03), secondary (aOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.20-0.85, p=0.016) and tertiary (aOR: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.09-0.64, p=0.005) education, unemployment (aOR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.11-7.96, p=0.03), tobacco use (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.83-4.53, p<0.001), having had at least one blood pressure measurement during antenatal visit (aOR: 4.7, 95% CI: 1.97-11.33, p<0.001) or medical checkup (aOR: 10.7, 95% CI: 6.06-18.

Conclusion: We observed a high prevalence of self-reported HTN affecting approximately one in five participants. More efforts are required to enhance routine screening, health education, and accessibility to HTN services in rural areas, with a particular emphasis on implementing HTN prevention and control strategies to effectively reduce the prevalence of HTN.

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Alex Male Kato1 , Winnie Kibone2 , Jerom Okot3 , Joseph Baruch Baluku4 , Felix Bongomin3

1 Department of Public Health, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda.
2 School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
3 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda.
4 Division of Pulmonology, Kiruddu National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.