Background: Overweight and obesity are significantly increasing among people living with HIV (PLWH), contributing to the risk of major adverse cardio-metabolic events. However, little is known on its prevalence among PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we report the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among PLWH in a large tertiary HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda.
Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective review of electronic database of all PLWH that attended the Adult Infectious Diseases Institute clinic between November 2018 and April 2019 was conducted. Demographic, body mass index (BMI) [kg/m2] and clinical variables were extracted. Based on BMI, nutritional status was classified as undernutrition (< 18.5kg/m2), normal (≥ 18.5 < 25kg/m2), overweight (≥ 25 < 30kg/m2) and obesity (≥ 30kg/m2). Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with overweight and obesity.
Results: Overall, 7,818 participants were included in the analysis, 64% (n = 4,976) were female, with a median age of 44 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36–51) and a median BMI of 24.2 (IQR: 21.2–28.1). The prevalence of overweight and obesity combined was 46% (55% female versus 30% male), obesity 18.2% (24.6% female versus 7.1% male) and overweight 27.8% (30.4% female versus 22.9% male). Factors associated with overweight and obesity were: Females (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 1. 8, 95%CI:1.69–1.87), age category 25—59 years (aPR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.63–2.24) and ≥ 60 years (aPR: 1.8, 95%CI:1.49–2.12); duration on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for 6—10 years (aPR: 1.1, 95%CI:1.08–1.18), CD4 count 200–500 (aPR:0.08, 95%CI:0.01–0.15) and > 500 (aPR:0.46, 95%CI:0.39–0.54) and having at least one noncommunicable disease (NCD) (aPR: 1.1, 95%CI:1.07–1.18).
Conclusion: There is a high burden of overweight and obesity among PLWH in Uganda. Nutrition and weight management programs particularly targeting high risk groups such as females and persons with underlying NCDs should be integrated into HIV care.