Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is the second most common solid tumor in Africa with both low overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates. However, no known factors are predicting this poor overall survival.
Objective: The study was to determine the one-year overall survival of WT cases and its predictors among children diagnosed in the pediatric oncology and surgical units of Mbarara regional referral hospital (MRRH), western Uganda.
Methodology: Children’s treatment charts and files diagnosed and managed for WT were retrospectively followed up for the period between January 2017 to January 2021. Charts of children with histologically confirmed diagnoses were reviewed for demographics, clinical and histological characteristics, as well as treatment modalities.
Results: One-year overall survival was found to be 59.3% (95% CI: 40.7–73.3), with tumor size greater than 15 cm (p 0.021) and unfavorable WT type (p 0.012) being the predominant predictors.
Conclusion: Overall survival (OS) of WT at MRRH was found to be 59.3%, and predictive factors noted were unfavorable histology and tumor size greater than 115 cm.